首页-日语 - 地盘 - 记录 - 日志 - 下载 - 查词 - 翻译 - 排行
F8键(暂停/播放)| F9键(重复此句)| 左键或ALT+Z(上一句)| 右键或ALT+X(下一句)
提示:听写播放器因为flash插件问题无法播放,请点击此处解决
听写窗口
译文窗口
注释窗口

您没有登录,系统不能保存您的听写记录和听写错词,点击此处登录

听写提交之后可查看原文
This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Susanne Bard.
Smallpox was eradicated worldwide in 1980. So generations of people have never had to experience the devastation the disease once brought.
"It could cause, sometimes, even in excess of 30 percent mortality. It caused these very painful blisters that covered the entire body."
McMaster University's Ana Duggan. She studies how genomes evolve.
The first vaccine for smallpox was developed in 1796.
It worked by infecting people with pus from pox lesions caused by similar but far less pernicious conditions, like cowpox.
At the time, no one knew that viruses caused these diseases.
"We didn't have microscopes that were strong enough to see them.
So we had physicians that were performing this procedure that they knew was beneficial.
But they didn't understand why it worked. They just knew that it worked."
Smallpox vaccination became common in the 19th century. During the American Civil War, all new soldiers on both sides were required to be vaccinated.
"You had a large number of individuals who were congregated in a single place, such as an army barracks, where a disease can spread very easily."
Back then, there were no mass-produced vaccines.
Instead physicians often used fluids and pox scabs collected from previously vaccinated people and shared these materials with each other.
They were kept in custom-made vaccination kits―a leather case containing a tin box, glass slides and a lancet for scratching the skin to introduce the vaccine into the body.
这里是科学美国人――60秒科学系列,我是苏珊娜・巴德。
1980年,天花在世界范围内被根除,因此几代人从未经历过天花曾带来的毁灭性影响。
“天花有时甚至会导致超过30%的死亡率。它会让人全身长满非常痛苦的水泡。”
麦克马斯特大学的安娜・达根说到。她研究基因组的进化方式。
第一种天花疫苗于1796年研制出来。
其工作原理是让人们感染痘疹伤口流出的脓来产生免疫,这些痘疹由类似但危害性小得多的疾病(如牛痘)引起。
当时,没有人知道是病毒导致了这些疾病。
“当时我们没有强大到足以看到病毒的显微镜。
因此,我们的医生实施了他们知道有益处的这一程序。
但他们不明白为何会有效。他们只知道这个方法有用。”
天花疫苗在19世纪开始普及。在美国南北战争期间,双方所有新兵都被要求接种疫苗。
“大量个体聚集在军营等病毒能非常容易传播的地方。”
那时,还没有大规模生产疫苗。
医生们经常从以前接种过疫苗的人身上收集液体和痘疹结痂,之后互相分享这些材料。
它们被保存在定制的疫苗箱里,这是一个皮箱,装有一个锡盒、载玻片和一把用于刮开皮肤让疫苗进入体内的小刀。
暂无注释
听写注意
1.为防止灌水听写至少要输入超过10个单词方可提交同时听写内容不能粘贴;
2.标点符号不用填写,听写比对会忽略掉标点符号;
3.单词与单词之间要留有空格,同时数字(年月或金额)请用阿拉伯数字。
可友留言
加载中...
我来说2句
抱歉,您需要先登录后才能留言
谁正在听写
得分最高
最新听写
热门听写