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This is Scientific American 60-second Science, I'm Lucy Huang.
You might expect to hear parrots like these in the wild in South America.
But these birds are actually nesting in the middle of Chicago.
Despite being known as monk parakeets, the green-and-gray squarkers are true parrots.
And they've been living in the Windy City since the 1970s. But not just there.
"There are monk parakeets in many, many states. They're breeding in around 21 states."
Jenny Uehling, a Ph.D. student now at Cornell, who was at the University of Chicago when she studied these birds.
"Certain populations will pop up in certain states and then, you know, disappear,
but they're by far the most widespread of any of the species."
Uehling wanted to know how many nonnative parrots were living in the U.S.
To do this "we used eBird and Christmas Bird Count, or CBC.
We use these two databases because they have the largest spatial distribution of data, basically, for the United States."
Uehling and her team looked at data collected from 2002 to 2016
and deduced that there were 56 different species of parrots living free in 43 states.
Of these species, 25 of them had become naturalized,
that is "able to successfully breed and maintain their own population without the addition of additional individuals from captivity."
Most of these nonnative parrots were either released by owners or escaped from captivity.
这里是科学美国人――60秒科学系列,我是露西・黄。
你可能期待在南美野外听到鹦鹉这种叫声。
但这些鸟实际上正在芝加哥中部筑巢。
尽管被称为和尚鹦鹉,但这些灰绿相间的吵闹家伙是真正的鹦鹉。
自上世纪70年代以来,它们一直生活在“风城”芝加哥。但不仅仅在芝加哥。
“很多州都有和尚鹦鹉。它们在大概21个州繁殖。”
珍妮・尤林现在是康奈尔大学的一名博士生,她之前在芝加哥大学学习时研究这些鸟类。
“某些种群会突然出现在某些州之后又消失,
但它们是迄今为止分布最广的物种。”
尤林想知道有多少种非本地鹦鹉生活在美国。
因此,“我们使用了eBird和圣诞鸟类统计 (简称CBC)。
我们使用这两个数据库是因为它们基本上是美国最大的空间分布数据库。”
尤林和团队研究了2002年至2016年间收集的数据,
推断出有56个不同种类的鹦鹉生活在美国43个州。
在这些物种中,有25种已经归化,
也就是说“无需附加额外的圈养个体,就能成功繁殖和维持自已的种群。”
大多数这些非本土鹦鹉要么被饲养者放出来,要么从笼中逃脱。
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