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Few stories are as prominent in the study of infectious diseases as that of Mary Mallon,
a cook to wealthy families, and also to a maternity hospital, in New York in the early 1900s.
As she went from one employer to another, typhoid fever, then deadly in one case in ten, followed in her wake.
Public-health officials eventually joined the dots and identified her as a carrier of Salmonella typhi, the bacterium that causes the disease.
What was striking about Typhoid Mary, as the newspapers nicknamed her, was that she herself was healthy―
proof that people could harbour and transmit S. typhi without showing symptoms of the illness it causes.
Such silent transmission, as epidemiologists call the phenomenon, has since been observed in many diseases―among them measles, influenza and HIV/AIDS.
A fresh addition to the list is SARS-COV-2, the coronavirus behind the covid-19 pandemic now raging.
Accumulating evidence suggests a substantial chunk of the infections it causes
are transmitted by people whose symptoms have not yet appeared―or even, like Mallon, who never develop symptoms at all.
That has implications for the methods countries are employing to curb the pandemic.
Currently, none of the evidence on asymptomatic transmission is watertight.
According to Gerardo Chowell of Georgia State University, in Atlanta,
在传染病研究领域,很少有像玛丽・梅伦的故事那样引人注目。
20世纪初,玛丽・马伦在富裕的家庭和产科医院做过厨师。
她的雇主换了一个有一个,伤寒都紧随其后,10个人中就有一个因其死亡。
最终公共卫生部进行调查,并确定她是伤寒杆菌(一种会引起疾病的细菌)的携带者。
纸媒称她为伤寒玛丽 ,关于她的故事最引人注目的是她本身是健康的――
这证明人们会携带和传染伤寒杆菌,且不出现任何症状。
流行病学家称这种现象为寂静传染,很多疾病,如麻疹、流感HIV和AIDS,都出现过这种现象。
最新进入这份名单的是SARS-COV-2,这是冠状病毒是目前covid-19疫情肆意的幕后推手。
越来越多的证据表明,它引起的感染中有很大一部分
是由尚未出现症状的人传播的,甚至像马伦一样,根本没有出现症状。
这对各国控制全球流行病的方法有影响。
目前,关于无症状传染的证据没有一个是无懈可击的。
根据亚特兰大佐治亚州立大学的Gerardo Chowell,
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