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This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Christopher Intagliata.
If you attend science conferences, ever pay attention to who in the audience asks questions?
Geneticist Natalie Telis did. And she noticed something... off.
"For the entire first day of the conference, I was the only woman to ask a question.
And I thought, wow, that's kind of weird, right?"
So, being a scientist, she decided to systematically study who asks questions at scientific conferences.
Together with colleagues at Stanford University, where she was based at the time, and others at Emory University in Atlanta,
she recorded more than 2,000 questions from hundreds of talks at eight different scientific conferences.
After assigning either male or female designations to question askers―
which the researchers acknowledge in the paper doesn't fully capture the spectrum of gender identity―
they found that women ask far fewer questions than a representative result based on their numbers.
In fact: "You need about 85 to 90 percent of your room to be women before 50 percent of your questions come from women."
But Telis did identify a possible solution.
Halfway through the Biology of Genomes conference in 2015, Telis started tweeting some of her preliminary findings
about how few women had been asking questions compared to their relative numbers at the meeting.
That information sparked a public discussion―and a policy change from the conference organizers,
who instituted a new rule that the first question at every talk had to come from a scientist still working towards her PhD,
这里是科学美国人――60秒科学系列,我是克里斯托弗・因塔格里塔。
如果你参加过科学会议,那你有没有注意过观众中谁会提问?
遗传学家娜塔莉・泰利斯注意了。她留意到了某些缺失的东西。
“在整个第一天的会议中,我是唯一一个提问的女性。
我当时想,哇哦,这有点奇怪,对吧?”
因此,作为一名科学家,她决定系统地研究谁会在科学会议上提问。
她与当时所在的斯坦福大学的同事以及亚特兰大埃默里大学的研究人员一起,
记录了8个科学会议上数百个对话中涉及的2000余个提问。
在给提问者指定男性或女性标志后,
研究人员在报告中承认,他们没能充分捕捉到性别认同的范围――
他们发现,女性的提问数量少于基于女性数量的代表性结果。
事实上:“需要观众中有85%到90%都是女性,才能实现50%的问题来自女性。”
但泰利斯确实找到了一个可能的解决方案。
2015年基因组生物学大会过半时,泰利斯开始在推特上发表她的一些初步发现,
即与参加会议的女性相对人数相比,女性的提问数量有多少。
这一信息引发了公众讨论――该会议组织者改变了政策,
他们制定了一个新规则,要求每场对话的第一个提问必须来自仍在攻读博士学位的女科学家,
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