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Sticking a thermometer into an armpit, mouth, ear or other body cavity is the most accurate way to take someone's temperature.
Understandably, though, this cannot be done at airports or checkpoints set up elsewhere
to screen the masses for feverish victims of covid-19.
So, in a bid to detect the warmth produced by a fever without touching any bodies, officials have opted for alternatives.
The hand-held "thermometer guns" now ubiquitous in China, among other places, are one option.
These instruments, known technically as spot pyrometers, use a device called a bolometer to estimate an object's temperature.
A bolometer's electrical resistance depends on how hot it is.
That, in turn, depends on the amount of infrared radiation falling on it from whatever it is pointing at.
Spot pyrometers are used widely in industry to check equipment for signs of overheating,
but the infrared signals they rely on can be muddled by dust, moisture, smoke, a change in ambient temperature,
a smudge on the device's lens or even by radio signals.
Beyond all this, an official checking a stream of foreheads may, for reasons of personal safety,
be reluctant to hold the gun close enough to obtain an accurate reading.
An alternative technology, the thermal camera, is costlier. But it can operate from farther away.
Instead of a single bolometer, it has an array of them.
These form the pixels which generate the camera's image, thus building up a heat map of whatever that camera is looking at.
将体温计插入腋窝、口腔、耳朵或其他体腔是测量体温最准确的方法。
然而,可以理解的是,这在机场或其他地方设立的检查站是做不到的,
这些地方是为了筛查人群中是否有covid-19的发烧患者。
因此,为了在不接触任何身体部位的情况下检测发烧产生的热量,各国选择了其他办法。
现在在中国和其他地方随处可见的手持“温度计枪”是一种选择。
这些仪器,技术上称为现场高温计,使用一种称为辐射热测定器的设备来估计一个物体的温度。
辐射热测定器的电阻取决于它的热度。
反过来,这又取决于从它指向的任何地方落在它身上的红外辐射的数量。
现场高温计在工业中广泛用于检查设备过热迹象,
但是它们所依赖的红外信号可能会被灰尘、湿气、烟雾、环境温度的变化、
设备镜头上的污迹甚至无线电信号所干扰。
除此之外,出于个人安全的考虑,测量额头体温的检察人员
可能不愿意拿着测温枪近距离读取准确的读数。
另一种替代技术,即热感摄像机,成本更高。但它可以在更远的地方运行。
它不是单一的辐射热测定器,而是大量的辐射热测定器。
这些像素形成了相机的图像,从而将相机看到的画面形成一个热图。
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