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This is Scientific American ― 60-Second Science. I'm Erika Beras.
Got a minute?
In recent years researchers have learned that trauma can be inherited―passed down due to changes in DNA, what's known as epigenetics.
But researchers recently uncovered a new wrinkle to the story:
"The effects of trauma which can be transmitted to the offspring can be reversed by a positive experience."
That's Isabelle Mansuy, professor of neuroepigenetics at the University of Zurich.
She and colleagues studied newborn male mice and their mothers that were separated from each other,
which caused them both to experience traumatic stress.
Those male mice and their male offspring displayed trauma symptoms―
which made them different from other mice that had not been separated from their mothers.
But when these symptomatic mice were exposed to positive experiences,
their behavior changed―as did the fate of their offspring.
"And we show that the negative consequences of this which are depressive behaviors, cognitive problems, antisocial behaviors, risk-taking,
this can be reversed if the father after being traumatized was exposed to a positive environment.
So this reverses the symptoms and it also reverses the biological reasons,
the biological cause for the symptoms in the progeny which are the epigenetic marks.
Epigenetic marks can be corrected in sperm cells by this positive experience."
The study was in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology.
Mansuy says the behavioral changes were associated with an increased level of the glucocorticoid receptor in the hippocampus―
这里是科学美国人――60秒科学。我是艾丽卡・贝拉斯。
有一分钟时间吗?
近年来,研究人员意识到,因为DNA的改变,心理创伤是可以遗传给后代的,这也被称为表观遗传学。
但最近研究人员针对这种说法提出了一种新看法:
“正向体验能扭转可传递给后代的心理创伤效应。”
这是苏黎世大学的神经实验胚胎学教授伊莎贝尔・曼殊所说。
她和同事研究了新生雄性小鼠及其母亲的情况,他们把老鼠母子分开,
使二者体会创伤压力。
这些雄性小鼠和它们的雄性后代都表现出了创伤症状,
这使它们不同于未跟母亲分开过的小鼠。
但当这些出现症状的小鼠接触正向体验以后,
它们的行为就会发生改变,它们后代的行为也会发生改变。
“我们的研究显示,心理创伤会产生抑郁行为、认知问题、反社会行为和莽撞冒险等负面后果,
而遭受过心理创伤的父辈在接触正向环境后,可以扭转这种创伤后果。
因此,正向体验可以扭转创伤症状,也可以扭转生理原因,
而老鼠后代产生症状的生理原因是表观遗传学标记。
正向体验可以矫正精子细胞中的表观遗传学标记。”
这项研究发表在《神经心理药物学》杂志上。
曼殊表示,行为改变与海马体中的糖皮质激素受体增高有关,
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