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The biggest achievements of 2014 happened in the last half of the year.
In August, after a decade-long flight, the European Space Agency’s Rosetta spacecraft became the first man-made object to enter into orbit around a comet, more than 400 million kilometers away.
In November, Rosetta launched a probe, named Philae, that made the first soft landing on the comet.
Its rugged surface caused the probe to settle down in partial shade, but lander manager Stephan Ulamec counseled patience.
“Our original fear that the lander would overheat is not relevant anymore," he said.
"We are in the shadow. So we can operate much longer in principle but we have to be patient and wait for a little bit more time until we have enough solar power to reactivate Philae.”
In September, the U.S. scientific satellite MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission) entered an orbit around Mars,
with the mission of learning what happened to the Red Planet's atmosphere and water.
MAVEN principal investigator Bruce Jakosky says scientists now know that Mars once had a much denser atmosphere
and that it has changed significantly over the last few billion years. What they still don’t know is how and why that happened.
“We are trying to understand what the cause of that climate change has been,
and we are looking at the role that escape to space may have played in removing the atmosphere and changing the atmosphere,”Jakosky said.
2014年的最大成就发生在下半年。
8月份,在经过10年的航行后,欧洲航天局的罗塞塔飞船成为第一个进入彗星轨道的人道物体,该彗星距离地球4亿多千米。
11月,罗塞塔发射了一个名叫菲莱的探测器,这是在该彗星上的第一次软着陆。
彗星凸凹不平的表面使得探测器陷入半阴影下,但发射器的管理人员斯蒂芬建议大家保持耐心。
“我们最初担心探测器会过热,但现在已经不担心了。
探测器现在在阴影下,所以从原则上说可以运行更长时间,但我们必须耐心,再等等,直到有足够的太阳能来重新发动菲莱。”
9月份,美国科学卫星MAVEN“火星大气与挥发演化”进入火星周围轨道,
其任务是了解这颗红色行星的大气和水。
MAVEN主要调查员布鲁斯・捷克斯基说,科学家现在知道火星一度有着更稠密的大气,
而在过去几十亿年间已经发生了改变,科学家仍不知道这是如何发生的,为何会这样。
“我们想弄明白导致气候变化的原因,
我们在研究大气逃逸到太空对火星大气消失和气候改变发挥的作用。”
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